Monday, 11 June 2012

Rusha habari yako mwenyewe

Sasa unaweza kurusha habari yako mwenyewe. Hauhutaji kumtumia mwenye blog akurushie habari yako. Fanya wewe mwenyewe hapa vavavuum.com. Username ni mdau na password VVJ2w01vtzrd. Karibu Hi blog ni nzuri kwa kila mtazania anayependa kupost habari, picha na matukio, n.k. Kama una Birthday parties, events mbalimbali, sherehe za kifamilia, holiday photos n.k, basi hapa ndiyo mwake.

Thursday, 2 February 2012

How Does 3D Technology Work?

In 1838, Sir Charles Wheatstone first described the process of stereopsis: the process by which humans perceive three dimensions from two highly similar, overlaid images. Or, the process by which Avatar looks like a mind-blowingly immersive alien landscape instead of a bunch of brightly colored fuzz.

3D technology has come a long way since Wheatstone developed his stereoscope, then used to view static images and eventually pictures. Now we get to wear Wayfarer knock-offs and enjoy 3D films, television shows and video games.

For some people, seeing cool images might be enough. But others might be curious how Pandora was brought to life, or how TRON: Legacy zapped them into its glowing world. The answer is both reassuringly simple and inordinately complex, depending on who you ask and how you look at it.

How do 3D films work? What’s the difference between polarity and anaglyph (we’ll get there), and what are the next steps for 3D gadgets and imagery? Have a look below for a breakdown of how today’s “it” technology functions. Plus, we put in some sweet looking pictures. What’s not to love?

Big words! Academic nomenclature! Relax, this is actually the easy part. 3D, or “stereoscopy,” refers to how your eyes and brain create the impression of a third dimension. Human eyes are approximately 50 mm to 75 mm apart — accordingly, each eye sees a slightly different part of the world. Don’t believe me? Hold up a pen, pencil or any other thin object. Close one eye. Now switch.

The image on either side should be pretty similar but slightly offset. These two slightly different images enter the brain, at which point it does some high-powered geometry to make up for the disparity between the two images. This disparity is “3D” — essentially, your brain making up for the fact that you’re getting two different perspectives of the same thing.


This is also, essentially, what modern 3D technology is trying to replicate. All those silly sunglasses and silver-coated projectors are all designed to feed your individual eyes different perspectives of the same image. Easy, right?

Well, yes. It is pretty easy for your brain to figure out the disparity between the two images. Your brain can automatically figure out all the angles and math and geometry to sync the images. The hard part is getting a camera to do the same thing, and to get those individual images to your individual eyes without butchering the whole effect.

This article will continue Monday Febr 06...Watch this space.

How Africa’s economy is benefiting from the ICT revolution

Standard Bank analyst Simon Freemantle recently produced a series of five research papers on the trends powering Africa’s economic growth. During the course of the week, How we made it in Africa will examine each of these five trends in more detail. In our third article, we look at the economic effects of Africa’s ICT revolution.

Africa’s ICT revolution has been well-documented in this publication and others. In 2000 there were only 15 million mobile subscriptions on the continent, by 2010 there were believed to be in excess of 500 million. It is expected that mobile subscriptions will reach 800 million by 2015. In the period between 2000 and June 2011, internet usage on the continent grew by 2,527%, compared to a world average of 480%.

“Few alterations of Africa’s macroeconomic vista have been as noticeable and inclusive as the growth of the continent’s ICT sector,” says Standard Bank analyst Simon Freemantle in a recent research report.

Economic effects

Freemantle says there is growing evidence of the economic gains possible from greater ICT penetration in emerging markets. “Without the telecommunications industry, it is estimated that Kenya’s GDP growth since 2000 would have been 0.9 percentage points (pps) lower on average. And, a recent study has shown how the incomes of Kenyan rural households have increased by 5%-30% since they began using mobile banking.”

The World Bank says that for every 10 pps increase in fixed line access, economic growth is likely to advance by 0.43 pps in high income countries, and 0.73 pps in low- and middle-income countries. It has further been found that an extra 10 phones for every 100 people in an average developing country could boost GDP growth in the respective country by as much as 0.8 pps.
“Much of the importance of mobile phones in the African context rests in the manner in which they allow Africans to sidestep pervasive infrastructure constraints, share information more freely, thus making markets more efficient, and stimulate and support entrepreneurial verve,” notes Freemantle.

One of Africa’s most talked-about ICT success stories is the rise of mobile money transfer services, led by Kenyan mobile operator Safaricom’s M-Pesa platform. In only five years since it was launched in 2007, over 14 million Kenyans have used the M-Pesa service. In 2010 an estimated US$7 billion (equivalent of 20% of Kenya’s GDP) was transferred through M-Pesa. The platform’s success has led to the launch of various other similar services.
Mobile phones have also supported poverty-alleviation and empowerment schemes on the continent. These include mobile phone applications such as Farmer’s Friend, Health Tips and Clinic Finder, which provide agricultural and health information.

Looking ahead

While Africa’s ICT sector is set to continue on its growth path, various challenges remain.
The high cost of fixed line broadband is an issue that urgently needs to be addressed. “At present, broadband costs in Africa are exorbitantly high, due in part to heavy residual reliance on satellite communications and microwave networks,” says Freemantle. “Last year it was reported that the top five most expensive places in the world for fixed line broadband were all in Sub-Saharan Africa – led by the Central African Republic, where the cost was nearly 40 times the average monthly income of the population.”

A number of new fibre optic cables linking Africa to international networks are, however, set to provide a major boost to overall connectivity. “African corporate enterprises – large and small – will benefit from the increasing bandwidth capacity and reduced cost of internet services,” explains Freemantle.

However, for the continent to benefit from the new fibre optic cable capacity, inter-African backhaul networks are essential. Without substantial investments to improve the current intra-regional linkages, broadband costs are expected to remain high.
According to Freemantle, many telecommunications markets also remain inadequately liberalised. He says that those countries with investor-friendly policies in the ICT sector will gain an edge in unlocking the potentially profound gains technology is able to generate.

Wednesday, 1 February 2012

Breaking News: Facebook Initial Public Offering (IPO)

Facebook is preparing to go public in the biggest tech IPO since Google. But what does that mean for its users – and its rivals?


Any day now, perhaps as early as Wednesday, Facebook will announce it is going public. The firm is looking to raise $10bn selling shares in an initial public offering (IPO) that will value the firm at somewhere between $75bn-$100bn, according to reports. Not bad for a seven-year-old firm that has only recently started making money and apparently made $1bn last year. It will be the biggest tech IPO since Google, and investors (and rivals) will finally get to see what makes Mark Zuckerberg's social network.

Is Facebook really worth $75bn-$100bn?

That's the big question. This is the most hyped IPO in years, and if the company is valued at less than $75bn, that wiill be seen as a major setback on Wall Street. Even at the low end, Facebook would be worth more than Disney (valued at $70bn). The company has 850 million users, more than the combined populations of the US, Brazil and Mexico. But what are they worth? Facebook has already overtaken Yahoo to become number one in online display advertising revenues, taking 16.3% of the market, says eMarketer, a research firm. eMarketer reckons Facebook's ad revenue will be $7bn by 2013. But for comparison Disney's revenues were over $40bn last year. Facebook's outsize valuation is a big bet on a big future.

What will I notice?

Not much – at least to start with. Facebook is no stranger to innovation: its news feed, "Like" buttons and timeline are just some examples of how the company has evolved over time—and users are likely to continue to see changes with or without the IPO. "Their internal slogan is: 'Facebook's only 1% finished'," says Nate Elliott, a principal analyst focusing on interactive marketing at Forrester Research. "We will continue to see changes in Facebook between now and when they go public – and after. I don't think any of those changes will be a function of the IPO."

So: same old, same old?

Not really. As a public company, anything Facebook does will be parsed by analysts looking for how it will hit the bottom line. The best way to do this is by more targeted advertising, say analysts.

Catherine Tucker, a marketing and IT professor at MIT's Sloan School of Management, expects Facebook to ramp up what she calls "social advertising" efforts, where ads are served up to users based on their friends' preferences. For instance, if I "Like" Whole Foods on Facebook, you, as my friend, are presumed to harbour a preference for organic food as well – hence you are more likely to see a Whole Foods advertisement when you log on.

Does this mean you should be concerned about how Facebook handles your information?

Yes. When Facebook goes public it will be under increased scrutiny, held more accountable, and required to be more transparent. But, at the same time, the need to maximise returns means the use of personal data is likely to increase, only raising privacy concerns. Facebook has already been slapped on the wrist over how it treats user data. In November, the company reached a settlement with the Federal Trade Commission, which accused it of engaging in "unfair and deceptive" practices, making public information that users had supposed was private.

"Facebook is probably going to face some difficult balancing issues, in terms of meeting its new shareholders' expressed desire to exploit the data they have with the fact that if they exploit the data too much it can drag down the effectiveness of advertising," says Tucker.

Why bother?

Facebook has to pay off its early investors, and it now has too many shareholders to stay private. But more than that, Facebook could use the cash. Google has $50bn of cash to spend snapping up start-ups. After it went public, Google bought key chunks of its business, including YouTube and ad firm DoubleClick. Facebook could raise $10bn in the IPO, enough cash to make some big purchases.

Debra Aho Williamson, principal analyst at eMarketer, expects Facebook will use its IPO cash to strengthen its mobile site.

"Facebook has always lagged a little bit behind in delivering a really solid user experience on mobile devices," she says. "As Facebook moves into markets where mobile is the primary way people access the internet, it is important to deliver a good mobile experience."

What are the risks?

Alongside Apple, Facebook is arguably the hottest company on the planet. But it's not easy to stay hot (just look at Apple before Steve Jobs came back).

Nearly all of the hot ideas online have come from start-ups, not public companies, and there's a reason for that. Public companies have to be accountable, and that accountability often means lopping off freewheeling, creative endeavoirs that you hope will make money and concentrating on making cash with what you have.

Google used to boast that staff spent 20% of their time on whatever they wanted. Not any more. Last year it closed Google Labs – "a playground where our more adventurous users can play around with prototypes of some of our wild and crazy ideas." Labs was culled so Google could devote more resources to "high-impact products" – for which you can read ones that make money.

From now on Facebook will have to do its innovating in public, and will be answerable to shareholders as well as its users

The Days of "Manager Knows Best" Are Ending

To get a glimpse of what tomorrow's young global managers might be like as leaders, take a look at how today's young people think about communications.

For one thing, they are devoted to connectivity. In a recent survey of more than 2,800 college students and young professionals in 14 countries, Cisco found that more than half said they could not live without the internet, and if forced to choose, two-thirds would opt to have an internet rather than a car. This intense desire to be connected leads to a demand for greater flexibility: Two out of five people said they'd accept a lower-paying job if the position offered greater flexibility on access to social media, the ability to work from where they chose, and choice on the mobile devices they could use on the job. Tomorrow's young managers will share these attitudes, and workplaces will inevitably become more flexible.

For another thing, social media is quickly overtaking phones and email and becoming the dominant form of communication. Young people are driving this change, with the one-to-one mode of interacting giving way to a one-to-many mind-set. Young leaders will use social media to create a running dialog with their employees and colleagues, issuing constant updates about their projects and ideas. Employees will use it to provide instantaneous input and feedback. Workers, via this medium, will insist on having a voice in shaping the company's vision and strategy.

The demand for increased connectivity and flexibility and greater use of social media will shape and change companies from the inside out. Companies will need to think hard about these questions:

What is the appropriate level of openness? Should employees be prevented from slamming their bosses' ideas, for example? Should managers be restricted in the kinds of things they can say to or about employees?
How much blurring of public and private life is too much? Social media encourages people to mix work- and nonwork-related communication, but some workers prefer to keep their social lives strictly off-limits.
How can the company prevent abuse of social media? Things can get ugly quickly — all it takes is one thoughtless comment. Employees and managers need to know that there will be serious consequences for any misuse of this potentially combustible form of communication.
When employees from VPs to interns are sharing company information on Twitter, on Facebook, and in blogs while your competition is watching, how do you ensure that your employees understand what information is confidential and what is public?
As companies resolve these issues, management styles will evolve. The days when a leader can confidently say "I know best" will come to an end. Managers will no longer be able to communicate with just a small circle of trusted advisers — they'll be expected to interact digitally with a much broader range of people both inside and outside the company.

Not every company will be pleased by this turn of events, of course, but those that embrace it will have new competitive opportunities. With knowledge flowing more freely throughout the organization and decisions being made more quickly, the company will be able to react more nimbly to the ever-increasing pace of change.

Tuesday, 11 October 2011

Guess who won mobile phone of the year award? It is not iPhone

The List of tech winners is published below.

The Samsung Galaxy S2 has beaten the iPhone 4 and a host of other mobiles to claim T3's phone of the year award.

It is the first time for three years that Apple or HTC have not won the category.

Talking about the handset, judges said: "Not content with pretty much owning internet search, Google has turned Android into a real threat to Apple's dominance on both mobiles and tablets."

Gadget of the year went to the Microsoft Xbox Kinect.

The console also picked up the gaming gadget of the year.

T3 Editor, Luke Peters, said: "The Kinect is not only an amazing gadget for today, it's a mouth-watering technological prospect for tomorrow too."

Other winners included Apple's iPad 2 (Tablet), Amazon's Kindle (Commuter gadget) and the RIM BlackBerry Bold 9780 (word gadget).

Apple picked up three awards in total with Samsung also winning the TV of the year.

Twitter was voted digital media service of the year while Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg picked up the gadget personality prize.

The winners were as follows:

Phone of the year: Samsung Galaxy S2

Tablet of the year: Apple iPad 2

Work gadget of the year: RIM BlackBerry Bold 9780

Innovation of the year: Razer Switchblade

Commuter gadget of the year: Amazon Kindle

Digital camera of the year: Canon Powershot G12

Gadget accessory of the year: Eye-Fi X2

Gaming gadget of the year: Microsoft Xbox Kinect

T3 design award: Apple MacBook Air 11-inch

Tech brand of the year: Google

App of the year: Flipboard

Digital media service of the year: Twitter

Music gadget of the year: Monster Beats by dre Dre Pro Studio

Home gadget of the year: Philips Airfryer

Retailer of the year: Amazon

Computer of the year: Apple MacBook Air 11-inch

Gadget personality of the year: Mark Zuckerberg

TV of the year: Samsung 8000 Series (UE55D8000)

Outstanding contribution to technology: Sir David Attenborough

Gadget of the year: Microsoft Xbox Kinect

Blackberry Crashed and Caused Widespread Disruption across Europe, Middle East, Africa

Summary: BlackBerry service has been widely disrupted across Europe, the Middle East and Africa, after a fault at a near-London datacenter.


BlackBerry services across Europe, the Middle East and Africa have crashed, causing widespread disruption across the continents.

The glitch began disrupting services from 11am (GMT) after a service failed in one of Research in Motion’s datacenters in Slough, near London.

Users have been unable to browse the web, send or receive email messages across personal accounts, or use the popular BlackBerry Messenger instant messaging service. It is thought that at least 70 million subscribers around the world are BlackBerry customers, with as many as 50 percent of that in the European region affected.

Although corporate accounts do not seem to be affected at this time, tens of millions of BlackBerry consumers are nonetheless suffering with this outage.

Research in Motion in the UK confirmed that it is aware of the problem and is “investigating”. In a tweet, it states that “Some users in EMEA [Europe, Middle East, Africa] are experiencing issues. We’re investigating and we apologise for any inconvenience”.

T-Mobile UK confirmed the outage in a tweet this morning for UK customers, while in Bahrain the entire country is affected by a BlackBerry blackout, confirms network provider Batelco. Vodafone Egypt points the finger directly at BlackBerry manufacturer stating in a tweet to a customer: “There is a Blackberry outage, it’s from RIM side” [sic].

I noticed personally this morning when email messages were slow to come through; only to return home from coffee to discover an Outlook full of emails.

Though the company have yet to explain what the problem is, one can speculate that it could be as a result of the upgrade to BlackBerry Internet Service (BIS) 4.1, the next-generation email service, for which only affects consumers.

In Uganda You can buy ticket using your mobile phone

In Summary
Telecom operator MTN is considering the introduction of mobile ticketing to solve problems in Uganda’s ticketing market.


Telecom operator MTN is considering the introduction of mobile ticketing to solve problems in Uganda’s ticketing market.
Mr Steven Kirenga, the business products manager at MTN, said the company is willing to implement MyTicket, a mobile network-based ticket selling and buying solution. “We are holding internal discussions to see whether it can work for us. We can join hands to see that we make it a better application,” he said at a press conference in Kampala yesterday.
The consideration comes at a time when thousands of Ugandans are struggling to buy the Uganda verses Kenya Africa Cup of Nations qualifier football game, which is due to be played in Kampala tomorrow.
MyTicket was developed by a team of Makerere University graduates including: Nanghaka Daniel, Mordecai Musonge, and Emmanuel Odidiet. According to Mr Nanghaka the team leader, the mobile application will be able to save mobile phone users from the pain of booking and acquiring tickets to major events like the MTN Kampala Marathon.
The mobile ticketing solutions are among the 11 software solutions that were developed within 48 hours by a team of 56 developers during an innovation competition that was held in Kampala last month.

Monday, 10 October 2011

Google Launches YouTube in Kenya


Search giant, Google launched YouTube in Kenya today. Through Youtube.co.ke, Kenyans would be able to discover and view local content as well as instantly view the most popular videos in Kenya whenever they visit the domain.
Kenyans with slow Internet connections also have the option of using YouTube Feather.
According to Google, YouTube Feather enables users watch pages with the lowest latency possible. It achieves this by severely limiting the features available to the viewer and making use of advanced web techniques for reducing the total amount of bytes downloaded by the browser.
YouTube is also currently available in Swahili and is accessible by scrolling to the bottom of the YouTube homepage, clicking “language” and choosing Kiswahili.
To seed the platform, Google partnered leading Kenyan media companies including the Kenya Broadcastng Corporation and the Nation Media Group’s TV Channel, NTV Kenya.
To learn more, check out the promo video for the launch below.

Is your iPhone not responding or not operating as expected? These tips will help you resolve most common issues.


We all know that the iPhone is a fantastic invention, but that doesn’t mean that it is not without it’s problems. From low battery life to ridiculous predictive text alterations, there are times when we just want to smash it against the wall, but we can’t because its screen is just so breakable! So, here are our 10 most annoying iPhone problems and tips on how to solve them!

1. Low Battery Life


 
Problem: One of the most common bugbears of the iPhone is that it’s battery runs out so quickly; browse Facebook, listen to a few tunes and send an email or two and suddenly you are in the red!

Solution: The best way to preserve your battery life is to switch off all of the apps and notifications that you don’t need, such as GPS, Wi-Fi and push notifications on useless apps until you need them.

2. Screen Is Easily Broken


Problem: I have lost count of the amount of times that I have dropped my iPhone and watched the flimsy screen splinter into a thousand pieces, knowing that I’m going to have yet another premium tacked on to my insurance bill. The price of having a wonderfully responsive touch screen is that it is very easily broken.

Solution: Get yourself a case. You need to protect your iPhone from the world’s elements, so invest in a tough one with a screen protector.

3. iPhone not responding
Problem: iPhone someimes does not respond. Sometimes searching for network which it cant find and displays 'no service' warning.
Solution: 1. Reastart your iPhone.


To reset iPhone, press and hold the Sleep/Wake button and the Home button at the same time for at least 10 seconds, until the Apple logo appears. Wait until it comes back on. This may take a while
2. If the above solution does not work, you may need to restore your iPhone back to its original settings.

Please note all downloaded Apps and files will be lost since your iPhone will be restored and behave as a new device. To make sure you do not lose your media data you must save them on your iTunes account. Find the information on how to back-uo your files on the link given below.
To restore your iPhone, first make sure the latest version of iTunes is installed on your machine
Next, connect iPhone to your computer and iTunes will launch automatically. In the left column under Devices, click on your iPhone, then click on Restore in the Summary tab.

For more information about backing up, updating, and restoring your iPhone software, see this article.

4. The Dictionary Won’t Learn New Words


Problem: Autocorrect is a fantastic setting if you are a sloppy texter like me, however if you want to use other languages such as Swahili, or slang or ‘naughty’ words, the iPhone can often correct them to the wrong word!
Solution: There are many ways to try and trick your iPhone into learning new words, but if you want these words to stick, you’ve got to Google it. If you search for new words with Google in Safari it forces your iPhone’s dictionary to remember your ‘new’ words and will retain them forever.
You may also consider downloading a special dictionary App of the language you want to use. 

5. The Next Generation iPhone Always Seems To Be A Lot Better


Problem: Whenever a new iPhone comes out, there’s always something in the back of my mind that makes me think that I should wait for the next one.
Solution: Write to Tim Cook, Steve Jobs successor and complain about his (genius) business model.

If iPhone is still not responding or not operating as expected, try get tips from fellow iPhone users at our iPhone Support Communities.

You can also email me for further help at goody.techmedia@gmail.com 

Enjoy your iPhone

India Unveils $35 Tablet Computer “Aakash”


With the intent of spreading knowledge and awareness of information technology all across the nation, India is all in readiness to roll out the world's cheapest, government-subsidized tablets computer, pegged at around $35, to myriad needy villagers, especially students, in the countryside.

The tablet dubbed "Aakash", meaning sky in Hindi, has been advertised as the world's cheapest tablet computer.
The tablet is an outcome of years of patient and unnerving efforts made by manufacturer "Datawind", in corporation with the Government of India.

The initial intent was to develop a laptop for as low as $10. But, getting it that cheap was not exactly possible, and hence the government decided to subsidize the product by paying $45 to Datawind for each tablet, especially for its distribution among teachers and students.

The device is powered by "Android", and offers a colorful and sensitive 7-inch touchscreen. It is efficient in managing basic computing functions like using word processor, browsing the web, and even video conferencing.

Weighing no more than 350 grams, the tablet supports 256MB of RAM, two USB slots, and an expandable memory of up to 32GB. In addition, it will provide replacement warranty for 12 months, and will supports variety of file formats such as DOCX, PPTX, PDF, MP3, etc. Aakash also has 3.5mm standard audio jack.

Sunday, 9 October 2011

Teknolojia ni chombo muhim cha maendeleo sio luxury



(Angalizo: Kwenye article hii nitatumia neno IT na ICT kumaanisha kitu kimoja)
Penda usipende teknolojia imeleta mapinduzi makubwa sawasawa na wakati wa industrial revolution. Nchi nyingi zimepiga hatua kubwa kwa kuona umuhim wa kuwekeza kwenye sekta hii. Makampuni kama Amazon.com yamechukua full advantage of IT kutengeneza mamilion ya hela, kutoa huduma kwa jamii na kuajiri maelfu. Hata hivyo kusuasua na kusita kuwekeza kwenye teknolojia kumedhoofisha nchi nyingi na makampuni mengi.

Japokuwa hali ya uchumi wa dunia unayumba sana, watu wakiishi kwa hofu na mashaka, ni muhimu kuendelea kuhimiza uwekezaji kwenye sekta ya teknolojia. Viongozi katika sekta mbalimbali wamekuwa wakiona IT kama kitu ambacho ni kizuri kuwa nacho lakini sio muhimu sana. Kwa sababu hiyo imani imejengeka kwamba unawekeza zaidi kwenye IT pale unapokuwa kwenye hali nzuri kiuchumi na kuacha ama kutokuipa ICT umuhimu pale mambo ya kiuchumi yanapotetereka. ICT imekuwa victim kila inapotokea bajeti imeyumba.

Kwa kuendelea kuona kwamba IT au ICT sio chombo muhimu cha maendeleo, nchi na jamii zetu zimekuwa zikishindwa kuendana na kasi ya teknolojia. Hata tunapotaka sasa kuwekeza kwenye sekta hii wakati mambo yanapokuwa mazuri kidogo tunakuwa tumeachwa nyuma sana.

Kuwekeza kwenye ICT kunahusisha mambo makuu mawili:
1. Research in technology - hii ina-stimulate innovation
2. ICT/IT consumption - hii inahusisha education; infrastructures; hardware and software acquisation; n.k

Tunawahimiza viongozi kwenye private as well as public sector kubadilika na kujifunza kutoka kwa wengine. Inawezekana bajeti haitoshi, lakini kwa kui-sacrifice ICT ama kutokuona umuhimu wake ni vigumu ku-compete kwenye hii dunia ya leo.
Tunapenda kusisitiza kwamba ICT sio luxury bali chombo muhimu cha maendeleo. Tuendelee kuhimiza uwekezaji kwenye sekta ya teknolojia

Friday, 7 October 2011

12 Challenges facing Computer Education in East African Schools


While ICT continues to advance in western and Asian countries, African countries still experience a lag in its implementation, and that continues to widen the digital and knowledge divides. In a recent study by Kiptalam et.al (2010), observed that access to ICT facilities is a major challenge facing most African countries, with a ratio of one computer to 150 students against the ratio of 1:15 students in the developed countries.

Whereas results indicate that ICT has penetrated many sectors including banking, transportation, communications, and medical services, the educational system seems to lag behind. Further, recent report by the National Council for Science and Technology (2010) indicated that computer use in Kenyan classrooms is still in its early phases, and concluded that the perceptions and experiences of teachers and administrators do play an important role in the use of computers in Kenyan classrooms.

Some of the challenges facing most of the EA countries are:
  1. Lack of qualified teachers to teach ICT in schools; The demand for ICT learning has been tremendous and the number of teachers who are trained to teach ICT cannot meet the demand. There are more students willing to be taught computing skills than there are teaches to transfer the skills.
  2. Lack of computers; Computers are still very expensive and despite spirited efforts by the government agencies, NGO, corporate organizations and individuals to donate computers to as many schools as possible, there still remains a big percentage of the schools unable to purchase computers for use by their pupils.
  3. Lack of electricity; Many schools are still not yet connected to electricity; being developing countries, the EA governments have not been able to connect all parts of their countries to the national electricity grid. Consequently those schools that fall under such areas are left handicapped and may not be able to offer computer studies.
  4. Computers are still expensive in Africa, in a country with a GDP of $1600, majority of the individuals and schools cannot afford to buy a computer and consider it as a luxury item, more expensive than a TV. While 2nd hand computers cost as little as $150 and branded new computers being sold at $500 or higher.
  5. Broken down computers; while a good number of schools have benefited from donated used computers, they have not been adequately equipped with the same on maintenance and repair, hence its very common to see a schools computer lab full of broken down computers, some repairable and some not. This has actually been a major problem, and the government has now put strict measures on any person, NGO or corporate bodies willing to donate 2nd hand computers. (It is seen as a dumping ground); e-waste management.
  6. Burglary; the fact that computers are still very expensive in EA, makes them a target for thieves who usually have ready markets to another party at a much less figure. This has made many schools to incur extra expenses trying to burglar proof the computer rooms. This extra expense makes some schools shy away from purchasing computers for their students.
  7. Fear by the administration; there is still a strong perception especially by the older generation that computers require highly skilled personnel to operate them, while this may not be the case, some school administrators also fear that their students will be exposed to adult sites and other undesired sites, through the use of the internet. Some also fear the infection of viruses to their computers leading to data loss, while this may be true to some extent, proper education on the safe use of computers and help alleviate some of this fears.
  8. Fear by the teacher, the teacher may fear being rendered irrelevant by the introduction of computers in his/her class. The ‘feel’ that the teacher still remains an authority and a ‘know it all’ in class is something that most teachers cherish, and anything that makes them otherwise is deemed an enemy of the classroom.
  9. Lack of internet or slow connectivity; most schools are not able to connect to the world wide web, due to the high costs involved in the connectivity. On average, it may cost approximately $120 per month to connect to about 15 computers on a bandwidth of 128/64kbps. This is considered as very expensive for a very slow speed.
  10. Lack of initiative by the community leaders; the community leaders who are charged with looking at the interests of a given community do not see the need to purchase and subsequent installations of computers to their schools as a priority. They consider health care, provision of water and other amenities as more important than buying computers for their schools.
  11. Obsolete computers lower the morale of both the teacher and the student; it is very common to find some schools using very old computers running on win98 or win 95.
  12. Increased moral degradation – internet pornography, cyber bullying and other anti-social behaviors is a worrying emerging problem.
The dilemma which arises in providing educational technology stems from a lack of financial resources and a limited distributive capacity. In addition, many African countries have not been able to employ teachers, and provide resources to keep up with this demand. This brings about compromised quality of education. Further, many African governments face the predicament of educational expansion that corresponds with economic development. Despite the setbacks, access to education is a strong focus of most governments.

ICT can play a significant role in equalizing opportunities for marginalized groups and communities. But the paradox is that for those groups that are unable to cross the technology divide, ICT is yet another means to further marginalize them. Education has a major role to play in resolving this problem. Thus, unless ICT becomes part of both the delivery and content of education, the disadvantage will deepen and development will suffer.

But the failure to use ICT is itself a result of the digital and knowledge divides that exist, and their causes are deeply embedded in the complex historical and socio-cultural context of the country. Fortunately, with the Vision 2030 goals, the African governments have begun to implement strategies that will address these paradoxes.

Is it better to turn my computer off or leave it on all the time?


This is one of those questions where there is no single right answer. In other words, it depends on how you use your computer.
There are at least three situations that force you to leave your computer on 24 hours a day:
  • You are on a network, and the network administrators back up files and/or upgrade software over the network at night. If that is the case, and you want your machine backed up or upgraded, then you need to leave it on all the time.
  • You are using your machine as some sort of server.
  • If you are running something like SETI@home and you want to produce as many result sets as possible, you need to leave your machine on all the time.
  • If you do not fall into any of these categories, then you have a choice about whether or not to leave your machine on.
One reason why you might want to turn it off is economic. A typical PC consumes something like 300 watts. Let's assume that you use your PC for four hours every day, so the other 20 hours it is on would be wasted energy.

­It's possible to use the energy-saving features build into modern machines and cut that figure in half. For example, you can have the monitor and hard disk power down automatically when not in use.

The argument for leaving your computer on all the time is that turning it on and off somehow stresses the computer's components. For example, when the CPU chip is running, it can get quite hot, and when you turn the machine off it cools back down. The expansion and contraction from the heat probably has some effect on the solder joints holding the chip in place, and on the micro-fine details on the chip itself.

    Apple - Introducing Siri on iPhone 4S


    Apple bado wana mengi ya kutuletea na kubadilisha jinsi tunavyoishi. Hivi karibuni wameonyesha jinsi watumiaji wa iPhone watakavyoweza kuitumia device hiyo tofauti kabisa na yulivyozoea. Kwenye video hapa utaona description ya nini kitakachotokea...very interesting.

    Monday, 19 September 2011

    New Samsung Galaxy 10.1. Expert Review

    The Samsung Galaxy Tab is the first major tablet release since the Apple iPad launched about five months ago.

    It's been a long time coming, too. The Galaxy Tab was one of the all-time worst kept secrets in tech until it was finally unveiled at Berlin's IFA show back in September, and as the first major Android tablet release, it holds a weight of responsibility on its shoulders.

    With a tidal wave of Android tablets about to sweep through the tech world, it's possible that if the Galaxy Tab were to disappoint, it could damage the perception that Android tablets will be able to top the iPad on features and performance.

    The price certainly indicates that Samsung believes the Galaxy Tab can topple the Apple iPad from its tablet tower. The 16GB model costs £530, which is £100 more than the Wi-Fi only version of the iPad. It is, however, exactly the same price as the cheapest 3G iPad, which is clearly no accident.

    samsung galaxy tab review

    That price doesn't include any 3G access either, so if you want web connectivity on the go, it's going to cost you a monthly fee from one of the mobile networks. Prices will likely start at around £10 a month for 1GB of data.

    Once the Tab has gone on sale, you should be able to pick up a subsidised model from one of the mobile networks, in return for signing a contract. However, currently we're not sure how much these deals are likely to cost.

    This pricing strategy is slightly surprising - the Android tablet would be a lot more appealing if it was a bit cheaper than the iPad.
    Samsung's decision no doubt also has something to do with it not wanting to undercut the cost of its own Android smartphones, but it's a big risk.

    The Samsung Galaxy Tab has a lot to live up to, then. Especially when you consider it's a lot smaller than Apple's tablet - its 7-inch screen is dwarfed by the iPad's 9.7-incher.

    galaxy tab
    Keeping up appearances

    With a slick black and white-styled body and a bright and shiny TFT touchscreen, the Samsung Galaxy Tab gets off to a good start in that it looks absolutely fabulous.
    It looks every bit the iPad killer that Samsung wants it to be. And while it may look lot like the iPad in pictures, it's quite a bit smaller and feels a lot different in the hand.

    compared
    The Samsung Galaxy Tab sitting between the Apple iPad and iPod touch 4G

    At 12mm it's quite thick, only fractionally thinner than the 9.7-inch iPad. As such it feels proportionately more chunky than the Apple device; not necessarily a bad thing.

    top

    The body is entirely made of plastic, so it feels less solid than the aluminium-backed iPad but it still feels adequately sturdy and tough. The plastic case enables it to stay pretty light at only 380g.

    side

    On the front of the device there are four touch buttons, similar to to those found on your average Android phone – one for home, one for options, a back button and one for search.

    buttons

    On the top of the device sits a 3.5mm headphone jack. The on/off button sits on the right hand side next to the volume controls and further down that left hand side you'll also find slots for a SIM card and a microSD expansion card.

    bottom

    The underside of the device is adorned by a charging and docking connector which looks identical to that of the iPad and iPhone. This will come into play when all the planned Galaxy Tab accessories start to spill out onto the market. The only external feature on the left side is a small microphone.

    Wednesday, 14 September 2011

    Tanzania Yaripotiwa na CNN : Jinsi IT inavyoleta maendeleo



    Maendeleo ya IT Tanzania yameendelea kugusa maisha ya wengi mjini na vijijini. Kuanzia mwalimu mpaka mkulima, kwa mfanyabiashara na hata mfanyakazi wa ofisini, IT inaipeleka Tanzania kunakotakiwa. CNN imeripoti maendeleo hayo - tazama video hii



    How can Africa ICT Development Work


    Key people discuss the issues surrounding ICT in Africa. The focus is on the rapid development of ICT


    Microsoft Waitambulisha Windows 8, Jiandae kwa vitu vikali


    Microsoft wametambulisha rasmi Windows 8 Jumanne mbele ya maelfu ya software developers waliokuwa wamekusanyika kwenye makao makuu ya jengo la kampuni hiyo Build, huko Anaheim, Califonia. Microsoft wamesema "wanailetea dunia kitu kitakachobadlilisha jinsi tunavyotumia PC." Windows 8 ina interface mpya kabisa, itakayofanya kazi kama touchscreens kwenye mobile devices kama tablets.

    Kwa ujumla utakuwa na komputa ya kisasa inayojumuisha uzuri wa tablets wakati ukiwa bado unafurahia ufanyaji wa kazi wa komputa uliouzoea kama kawaida.

    Windows 8 imetengenezwa kuwa "touch first, lakini itaendelea kutumia mouse and keyboard," alisema Steven Sinofsky, raisi wa Microsoft's Windows division.

    Kwenye video hapa chini Boss wa kamouni Microsoft Steve Balmer anazungumzia mategemeo ya wapi Microsoft itakuwa miaka 10 ijayo.


    Monday, 12 September 2011

    Kama unamiliki blog au website hakikisha unajua Search Engine Optimization (SEO) ni nini. Tazama Video hapa ya dakika 3!


    Kama una website au blog yako, serch engine optimisation ni muhimu kujua. SEO ni technique inayosaidia website yako kupatikana kirahisi pale mtu anapokuwa anatafuta (search) vitu mbali mbali online. Kwa mfano kwa kutumia Google mtu anaweza akawa anatafuta maelezo kuhusu milima iliyoko Afrika. Kama una website au blog inayorusha maswala haya, ili ya kwako iwe juu kabisa (kumbuka zipo blog na website  nyingine nyingi) unatakiwa kutumia SEO. Kwa kutumia SEO unaongeza wasomaji wa blog yako na kukusaidia kufikia wengi zaidi.

    Tazama video hii hapa itakupa maelezo zaidi

    Kutoka blog ya teknolojia :
    http://it4dev.blogspot.com/

    Kama unapenda kutengeneza mobile apps, HTML5 ndiyo lugha ya kujifunza sasa



    Kama ulikuwa unafikiri kwamba itachukua muda kwa HTML5 kutumika zaidi kwenye mobile app basi unajidanganya. Ukweli ni kwamba HTML5 imekubalika na wataalam wengi wa IT duniani kote kama standard kutenegeneza mobile apps. Hii ni kwasababu HTML5 tayari ni web-based standard, tofauti na language nyingine. Application programs nyingi zina uwezo wa kufanya kazi vizuri kwa kutumia browser ambayo imeandikwa kwa kutumia HTML5.
    Faida kubwa ya kutumia HTML5 ni developer anaweza kutengeneza HTML5 app inayoweza kufanya kazi kwenye simu yoyote ya mkononi yenye browser nzuri. Hii itaondoa lile tatizo lililopo kwamba app iliyotengenezwa kwa ajili ya platform za simu kwa mfano Android haiwezi kufanya kazi kwenye platform nyingine kwa mfano iOS. Kwa kutumia HTML5 hili tatizo litakuwa halipo tena.
    Hadi sasa Linkedln na Pandora zimeshaipitisha HTML5 kama standard ya kutengeneza applications zake. Miaka kadhaa iliyopita Steve Jobs wa Apple alitabiri kwamba HTML5 kuwa standard ya web apps. Apple waliamua kuipa kisogo  Adobe Flash kutoka kwenye platform ya iOS. Kwa sababu Adobe Flash ni plug in application, kumekuwa na shida kwa wengi kutumia application kama You Tube ambayo inatumia Adobe Flash. HTML5 imeondoa tatizo hili, huhitaji tena Adobe Flash kwa sababu una uwezo wa kutumia video moj kwa moja.
    Tatizo linaloikwamisha HTML5 kwa sasa ni jinsi program hii itaweza kuuungana vizuri na simu za mkononi zilivyotengenezwa ili kuhakikisha inatumia features zote zilizopo. Hiiinahusiana na features kama kamera, global positioning system (GPS), n.k. Ikumbukwe kwamba application za kawaida za simu zinahusiana vizuri na software ya simu kama vile Android. Hii iniwezesha application hiyo kujenga uhusiano na hardware yenyewe inayoiwezesha kutoa huduma mbali mbali kwa mfano kujua mteja alipo, kutoa direction kwa kutumia ramani, n.k
    Kuna mengi mazuri ya HTML5 yanakuja hivyo usiisahau kwenye vitu unavyotakiwa kuvijua japo kidogo

    Kutoka blog ya teknolojia :
     http://it4dev.blogspot.com/
    Changia mawazo yako

    Sunday, 11 September 2011

    Tanzania: Mandela Science & Technology Institute in Arusha - World Class University



    The Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and Technology (NM-AIST) in Arusha is one in a network of Pan-African Institutes of Science and Technology located across the continent. These institutes, which are the proud brainchild of Nelson Mandela, envision to train and develop the next generation of African scientists and engineers with a view to impacting profoundly on the continent’s development through the application of science, engineering and technology (SET).


    NM-AIST is being developed to become a world-class research intensive training institution mainly for postgraduates and post-docs in science, engineering and technology (SET) related fields. Initially the fields of study covered by NM-AIST, taking advantage of the immense bio-diversity in countries forming its catchment area, will be life sciences and bio-engineering; mathematics, computational and communication science and engineering; water resources and environmental science and engineering; materials science and engineering and; sustainable energy science and engineering.
    Visit the university website HERE

    Agriculture : How Can Information Technology Be Used


    Getting the right information to farmers, when and where they need it, in a form (language and tone) they understand and can easily access is as vital to the success of the agriculture sector as the right type of soil, adequate water, sunlight and any other input. For this primary reason, I endorse BIID's call for information to be considered as an input in agriculture. It holds true beyond the Bangladeshi context.

    A lot can be learnt from this report from India in this video


    It is mind-boggling to me that so few countries in Africa, the Caribbean and Pacific, where agriculture remains a key employer and contributor to national income, have created an enabling environment for the growth of agriculture infomediaries. The value of agricultural infomediaries is that gathering agriculture data and providing credible and efficient information services is vital at every stage along the value chain.

    The reality is, in much the same way the global economy is driven by knowledge, enterprising agriculturists, consumers and others in the sector now depend on high quality, reliable and efficient information systems built around new technologies, well trained and knowledgeable people. So information is not just a key input for a farmer, informing him of what additives to use, when to plant, where to plant and what is more marketable to plant, it sustains the entire sector.

    Researchers, farmers, middlemen, retailers and consumers need infomediaries as they do not have ready access to agricultural data. So, infomediaries function as ‘translators’, who capture, synthesize and repackage data for different groups within the sector. The rising demand for value added services, combined with a paucity of agricultural data, underscores the strong demand for agricultural infomediary services. In fact, Mobile-based agricultural support and market research is among the most attractive growth sectors in places like Kenya. There's also potential elsewhere as ICT infrastructure strengthens. The high rate of mobile phone ownership among farmers across developing countries with large agriculture sectors shows how palpable these opportunities are.

    The livelihood of farmers have been hampered by ad hoc marketing systems and broader issues of information asymmetries for centuries. Poor communication between producers and buyers results in inadequate planning, and ultimately an unstable market environment.

    Inadequate and inefficient information is bad for the sector.... let's fix that! Recognizing its key role as an input is a key step.

    Source

    Saturday, 10 September 2011

    Ufanyeje kuifanya Komputa yako ifanye kazi kwa speed zaidi? Njia 6 za kusaidia kuondoa matatizo na kuongeza speed na usalama wa komputa yako

    Wengi wamekuwa frustrated kutokana na komputa zao kuwa slow sana. Wengine hata wanafikiria kwenda kununua machine nyingine. Wakati hiyo inaweza kuwa solution, bado baada ya muda tena komputa yako itaanza kuwa slow kama hutajifunza njia mbalimbali za kuongeza speed na usalama wa komputa yako zilizoorodheshwa hapa. Kwa kufuata maelezo haya una uwezo wa kuongeza speed ya komputa yako na kuifanya salama zaidi. Maelezo haya yanahusu tools kwa ajili ya wale wanaotumia  Windows XP Service Pack 3, Windows Vista na Windows 7.
    Sababu Gani zinazofanya komputa iwe slow
    1.        Background Programs : Inawezekana kila unapowasha komputa yako kuna background programs usizozihitaji kwa wakati huo zinaanza kufanya kazi bila wewe kujua. Yawezekana ni programs genuine au spyware.

    a.        Kuziona na Kuzifunga programs hizi bonyeza Ctrl +Alt + Delete kwa wakati mmoja.

    b.        Bonyeza ‘Start task manager’

    c.        Bonyeza ‘Processes’

    d.        Zianzoonekana ni processes zinazofanya kazi kwa wakati huo. Unaweza ukaanza kuondoa moja baada ya nyingine kwa kuchagua process unayotaka kutoa na kubonyeza ‘End task’. Jaribu kutokutoa process muhimu zinazosaidia System yako kufanya kazi. Hizi process ni kama Explorer na Systray

    Kumbuka process hizi zitarudi next time utakapowasha tena komputa yako. Kama unataka zisiwe active kabisa basi nenda kwenye faili zilipohifadhiwa kisha configure kwa kuzi-disable.

    2.        Hard Disk : Inawezekana hard disk ya komputa yako ina data nyingi mno ambazo hazijajipanga vizuri hivyo kuifanya iwe slow. Ili hard disk ifanye kazi vizuri inahita free space ya 300MB – 500MBs. Hakikisha unafuta mafaili usiyohitaji. Sababu nyingine inawezekana hard disk yako iko fragmented kitu kinachosababisha programs kuwa loaded na kuwa deleted kila mara. Hakikisha una-run Windows hard disk defragmenter (Defrag) angalau mara moja kila mwezi.

    3.        Memory : Hakikisha una memory capacity ya kutosha. Kumbuka programs kama video na komputa games zinahitaji memory capacity kubwa zaidi. Jua matumizi ya komputa yako kabla hujanunua ili kuhakikisha unanunua komouta yenye memory capacity itakayokidhi mahitaji hayo. Kwa programs nyingi za kisasa hakikisha una angalau memory capacity ya 256 MB.

    4.        Windows Devices: Wakati mwingine kama umefanya madiliko fulani kwenye komputa yako, inawezekana kukawa na Windows device drive conflicts. Kwa mfano inawezekana una video drives mbili zinazoshindana. Kuondoa hili tatizo washa komputa yako kwenye Safe Mode kwa kushikilia F8 button wakati unapoiwasha komputa. Wakati uko kweny Safe Mode, bonyeza Start/Settings/Control Pane/System/Devices Angalia kila device kuhakikisha kama kuna yeyote yenye alama ya njano (warning sign) au alama nyekundu inayomaanisha kwamba kuna conflict kati ya drives. Cha kufanya hapa ni kuiondoa kabisa drive hiyo na kui-install nyingine upya.

    5.        Deleted programs : Baadhi ya programs ulizofuta zimeacha vichembe kwenye komputa yako. Tumia programs kama registry au PC cleaner kusafisha memory na registry.

    6.        Spyware au Adware : Inawezekana komputa yako imejaa spyware au adware programs zinazoiba data zako na kufanya vitu usivoyvihitaji na vingine ambavyo ni hatari. Tumia Ant-Virus programs kuhakikisha unajikinga na wadudu hawa.

    Program ziifuatazo zitakusaidia kuichunguza system yako na kuondoa uchafu wote usiohitajika. Ni za bure kabisa hivyo usilipe chochote. Kwa wale wanaotaka program za kulipia zenye features nyingi na advanced zaidi basi bonyeza hapa.

    ·          Microsoft® Windows® Malicious Software Removal Tool (KB890830) 




    ·          Malware Bytes


    Kwa maelezo zaidi ya jinsi ya kujikinga bonyeza hapa.

    Thursday, 8 September 2011

    Anza kuuza au kununua kifaa chako cha tecknolojia kwa bei nzuri kwenye blog yako leo!

    Tumepata maombi kutoka kwa wasomaji wetu kwamba itakuwa ni vizuri kama tutaanza kutangaza kwenye blog hii vitu mbali mbali vya electronics vinavyouzwa na wasomaji wetu. Inaonyesha kwamba wapo wanaohitaji kununua na vile vile wapo wanaotaka kuuza. Hivyo basi kwa sababu hii, tunawapa wasomaji wetu uhuru wa kutangaza vitu wanavyotaka kuuza BURE kabisa kupitia blog yenu. Vitu hivyo ni kama:

    Simu za mkononi,
    Computer Software and Hardware,
    Vitabu na majarida ya teknolojia,
    na vinginevyo

    Tutumie maelezo (specifications) ya kitu unachotaka kununua au kuuza. Weka picha ili kuvutia wengi. Hakikisha unawapa wasomaji bei inayoridhisha na pale unapouza kifaa, hakikisha unaeleza hali (condition) yake.

    WOTE MNAKARIBISHWA

    Wednesday, 7 September 2011

    Hakikisha hupotezi data zako ikiwa system yako ita-crash. Jifunze jinsi ya kufanya backup na ku-restore kukiwa na tatizo


    Windows 7 inakuja na njia salama na rahisi zaidi ili kuhakikisha kwamba haupotezi mafaili yako pale komputa yako inapokumbwa na tatizo kubwa linaloweza kuharibu hard disk yako. Kwa hiyo kila wakati umejiandaa kama maafa yakitokea.

    Chagua au iache Windows ichague kipi cha ku-backup. Unaweza ku-backup kwenye CD, DVD au network.

    Jinsi ya kufanya backup ya mafaili yako
    Angalia video hapo chini au fuata maelezo hapa


    To back up your files

    1. Open Backup and Restore by clicking the Start button Picture of the Start button, clicking Control Panel, clicking System and Maintenance, and then clicking Backup and Restore.
    2. Do one of the following:
      • If you've never used Windows Backup before, click Set up backup, and then follow the steps in the wizard. Administrator permission required If you're prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation.
      • If you've created a backup before, you can wait for your regularly scheduled backup to occur, or you can manually create a new backup by clicking Back up now. Administrator permission required If you're prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation.
    Notes
    • We recommend that you don't back up your files to the same hard disk that Windows is installed on.
    • Always store media used for backups (external hard disks, DVDs, or CDs) in a secure place to prevent unauthorized people from having access to your files—we recommend a fireproof location separate from your computer. You might also consider encrypting the data on your backup.

    To create a new, full backup

    After you create your first backup, Windows Backup will add new or changed information to your subsequent backups. If you're saving your backups on a hard drive or network location, Windows Backup will create a new, full backup for you automatically when needed. If you're saving your backups on CDs or DVDs and can't find an existing backup disc, or if you want to create a new backup of all of the files on your computer, you can create a full backup. Here's how to create a full backup:
    1. Open Backup and Restore by clicking the Start button Picture of the Start button, clicking Control Panel, clicking System and Maintenance, and then clicking Backup and Restore.
    2. In the left pane, click Create new, full backup.
      Note
      You will only see this option if your backup is being saved on CDs or DVDs.

    To set up a backup after upgrading from a previous version of Windows

    After you upgrade Windows, you will need to set up Windows Backup, even if you had a scheduled backup in the previous version of Windows. This is because there are several changes to the backup program. Instead of selecting file types to back up, you can have Windows back up data files saved in libraries, on the desktop, and in default Windows folders, or you can choose specific libraries and folders to be backed up. You can also create a system image of your computer. For more information, see How does Windows choose which files to back up?
    To set up your backup, follow these steps:
    1. Open Backup and Restore by clicking the Start button Picture of the Start button, clicking Control Panel, clicking System and Maintenance, and then clicking Backup and Restore.
    2. Click Set up backup, and then follow the steps in the wizard. Administrator permission required If you're prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation.
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